THE FOURRAGÈRESS AND AIGUILLETTESS :
It carries up at the end of the XVI century. Simple rope to fodder carried around the shoulder by the Austrian dragons without tags. The rope was in hemp ornamented of thick knot and plaited to the extremities (named rackets).
Napoléon 1st gave him the appellation of shoulder braid to the different colours; hussars in yellow and gunners in red.
Attribute suppressed at the end of the war of 1870. But in 1914, the notions of shoulders braid and aiguillettes confound themselves.
The French army in 1914, remain the only one to use this term (dictionary Armed of Earth of the General Bardin) for particular reasons:
Gold or Silver ranges on the right shoulder are the attribute of the state regimental adjutant officers.
In 1916, the left shoulder ornament in the shape of simplified aiguillette will be assigned to the deserving units.
In April 1916, a ministerial decision ratified the shoulder braid as us know it.
This badge of permanent honorary distinction is granted definitely to the military units. It was assigned of right to all military composing this unit decorated during the period of affectation in the so-called unit.
The aiguillettes is not a decoration but a trimming.
Until the beginning of the XVI century, they served instruments of attachment of the clothes or the pieces of armour.
The characteristic being the metallic envelope to the extremity of the attachment cord that looks strong like the metallic needles of laces of shoes.
With the passing of the time, the aiguillettes could put back in memory, the memory of the ropes to fodder or the one binding the malefactors used in hanging.
Of or this subtle unverified anecdote : The duke of Albe named governor of Netherlands by Philippe II of Spain complaining about a Flanders body, decided to punish the mistakes by the rope.
The Flanders wanting to prove their strength carried on the shoulder a rope and a nail to make easier the execution of the order.
A conduct before the enemy shines transformed this rope of trimming in honorary mark.
Simple shoulder braid :
Text of origin annexed by the circular of April 21, 1916,it is composed of a round cord and partially braided of three sprigs finished by a knot and a tag. The sons are in cotton of 6 millimetre of diameters. The cord before being braided is of 3,15 m. To the superior extremity of the shoulder braid, a tab sewn of 25 mm of large on 35 mm of height wears a buttonhole in its middle. To 7 cm of the tab, begin the braid (57 cm about). TO 7 cm of the end of the braid, is fixed in the cord, a braid to three branches (1 mm of diameter made of wool or cotton of 60 mm of circumference). Then to 7 mm, the cord forms a knot of four towers, of 35 mm of height. Then 5 lower cm, is sewn a tag made of metal of 65 mm.
Double shoulder braid :
Evoked in a circular of September 11, 1918 and described definitely May 30, 1919,it is constituted of the same elements that the simple shoulder braid with however some differences; the cord of 4,80 m ends by a clover instead of a tab. The braided part is longer (77 cm) and under the clover, " leaves " a wheel or tower of arm of 70 cm of development. The superior branch similar to a simple shoulder braid is shorter in its braided part (40 cm instead of 57 cm). The double shoulder braid is therefore to two tags, two branches and a tour of arm.
Shoulder braid of the honour Legion :
Cord plaited to the red colour of the medal and being part of the uniform.
Shoulder braid of the Military Medal :
Cord plaited to the colour of the medal, yellow and green.
Shoulder braid of the War Cross 1914-1918 or 1939-1945 :
Intended to commemorate the collective quotes gotten by the combat units (decree of 1916), it is a plaited cord (greener than red) for 1914-1918 and (redder than green) for 1939-1945. The first shoulder braid (green and red) colour of the War Cross is created by circular ministerial of April 21, 1916 and June 1 and 4, 1916 for the Marine.
Shoulder braid of the Cross of the Liberation :
Recent, it was created February 23, 1996 and be composed of a round cord to the colours of the medal (green and black). One of the extremities in the shape of clover, and the other with a tag and a flowing of metal (however or money). The badge of the Cross of the Liberation (format reduces at third) is fixed between the tag and the knot.
Shoulder braid of the Cross of War and Theatre and Outside Operations :
Cord plaited to the colours of the Cross of War of the T.O.ES. (blue and red).
THE HARBOUR (AIGUILLETTES AND SHOULDERS BRAID) :
The aiguillettes is reserved to some categories nowadays.
Plaits of colour ornamented in the same way of an acorn colour and finished each by a tag.
- Helps of camp, colour and harbour identical to the chiefs of headquarters.
- Officers of headquarters, plaits, acorns and tag of the colour of the clothing. Harbour to the right shoulder.
- Republican guards, plaits and red acorns, tag money for the Guards. Plaits, acorns and tag however for the Officers and officers. Harbour to the right shoulder.
- National state police, in departmental, plaits and acorns made of white silk with tag money. Harbour to the left shoulder. In mobile, plaits and acorns made of white silk with tag however. Harbour to the left shoulder.
- Parisian police, The cord raised of red silk to 1 tag by the Parisian policemen in holding of official reception is not a shoulder braid! The flag of the guards of the peace has been decorated of the honour Legion in August 1944, but however the number of the quotes is insufficient to give the right in the harbour of a shoulder braid.
The shoulder braid carries itself attaché under the left shoulder paw by means of a button (in bone or in zinc), while passing under and on the arm.
Held of country:
the shoulder braid makes the tour of the left arm and is stapled to the button with the help of the braid forming ring.
Held of exit:
the shoulder braid also makes the tour of the left arm, but is stapled to the second button of the uniform (text of April 21, 1916).
OBTAINING OF A SHOULDER BRAID :
- Legion of honour,
6 to 7 or 8 quotes. Exception, taken of the flag to the enemy, gives right to the shoulder braid with only one quote to the order of the army.
- Cross of war,
2 to 3 quotes. And 9, 10 or 11 in double shoulder braid,
- Military medal,
4 to 5 quotes. And 12, 13, or 14 in double shoulder braid,
A circular ministerial dating 1916 foresaw supplementary assignments ever assigned on this day (April 2001):
- shoulder braid of the honour Legion more Crosses of War
for 9, 10 or 11 quotes, 15 in double shoulder braid,
- shoulder braid of the honour Legion more Award a medal Military
for 12, 13 or 14 quotes.
THE PARTICULARITIES (TAGS AND FLOWING :
The tag :
According to a text of April 21, 1916, the tag of the shoulder braid is in united metal in the colour of the rank stripes.
Either, golden or silvery according to the weapon in reference of the officers and non-commissioned officers.
A note of September 18, 1917 makes mention of five colours: golden, silvery, blue, khaki and green.
These last three colours are assigned to troop's men according to their clothing.
These tags are underestimated enough .It would seem that the length of existence limited itself to the war for the harbour of the shoulder braid in holding of country.
The tags " tinted " by varnish and polished after the armistice took their colour of origin.
The flowing :
According to an additive of July 25, 1916, the officers and affected men of troop in a new body can carry to individual title the shoulder braid assigned in the former body.
A " flowing " placed the tag above, will carry the number made of metal of the origin body.
This flowing is described (October 1916 12) in e brass forms oval and smooth (15 mm of top, 11 mm of diameter) with slightly flared extremities and finished in flat bridles with jagged branches.
The smooth part being reserved to the inscription in abstract of the origin body (numbers and letters).
Some officers and non-commissioned officers since the origin raised shoulders braid different of the authorized for various reasons :
quality of the cord (silk or girdle of silk) and extremities in clovers
embroidered by several wheels
wealth of the tag and its flowing chisel of motives to the military emblems (gold/silver).
The reductions at the time of civil holdings :
The former fighters (war 1914/1918) titular of a shoulder braid to personal title took familiarization (non-existent official texts) to adapt this last in scale model fixed to the barrette of attachment of the war Cross.
This shoulder braid " scale model " must be able to answer an attestation delivered by the chief of Body.
In his center, represent the number or the badge reduces the body to the title of which the profit has been assigned of it to them.
To the title of the Big War, close to 780 shoulder braid were assigned.
- Either about, 663 to the units of the earth army,
- 60 to the squadrons of air,
- 30 to the units of the Marine,
- 21 to buildings of surface,
- 5 to submarines
- 3 to the squadrons of The air-sea.
Legion of honour and Cross of War,
To the regiment of march of the foreign Legion (RMLE),
the regiment of colonial infantry of Morocco (RICM).
Legion of honour,
Infantry, 8è, 23è, 26è, 152è and 153è RI,
Let's battle hunters, 6è, 8è, 16è and 30è BCPS and 27è BCAS,
Body of infantry in Africa, 3è, 4è, 8è and 9è
Zouave, 2è, 4è and 7è
Skirmishers,; 4è RMZTS and 3è BMILAS,
Regiment of colonial infantry, the 43è,
Regiment of country artillery, the 61è,
the battalion of the marines.
129 units of decorated.
Cross of War,
600 units of decorated.